In the blockchain domain, the term “hard cap” carries two distinct meanings. Firstly, it signifies the ultimate and unalterable limit on the total supply of a cryptocurrency. A notable example is Bitcoin, which has a fixed hard cap of 21 million bitcoin (BTC) units. Secondly, hard cap refers to the maximum quantity of a currency made available to investors during an Initial Coin Offering (ICO) or fundraising campaign. For instance, a blockchain project seeking financial support might establish a hard cap of 100 million tokens for initial sale, indicating that the ICO will cap the number of tokens available for purchase at 100 million.